The Beryl Minerals and Gemstones

What is Beryl Mineral?

Beryl is a mineral which is formed by beryllium, aluminium cyclosilicate. The chemical formula of beryl  is Be3Al2(SiO3)6. The popular varieties are Morganite (pink), Aquamarine (blue to bluish green), Emeralds (green), Hellidor (Yellow), Gosshenite (white or colorless). The crystal shape of the Beryl minerals and gemstones is Hexagonal.

What are Beryl Properties?

Chemical Formula Be3Al2Si6O18 + Fe, Mn, Cr, V, Cs
Colour white, yellow, green, blue, red, pink, pinkish orange, sea green, sky blue, parrot green, brown, orange
Hardness 7.5 to 8
Special Gravity Emerald: 2.68–2.78
Red Beryl: 2.66-2.70
Morganite: 2.71-2.90
Goshenite: 2.6-2.9
Aquamarine: 2.66–2.80
Refractive Index 1.577-1.583 (+0.017, - 0.017)
Streak Colorless
Crystallography Hexagonal, Crystals prismatic, equant;
often striated or etched
rolled pebbles massive
elongated/ flattened
Habit Prismatic
Luster Vitreous
Cleavage 3,1 - basal / Indistinct
Transparency Transparent to Opaque
Fracture Uneven to conchoidal
Tenacity Brittle
Group Silicates; Cyclosilicates
Rock Type Volcanic, Metamorphic rocks, igneous

Beryl Minerals and Gemstone Varieties

Aquamarine Aquamarine colour is blue, to bluish green
Emerald Emerald colour is green. light green coloured emerald will be called " green beryl" not an emerald.
Tripache Tripeche is form of emerald with having green colour in middle and corner as light green. Usually it has star also in the middle
Morganite Morganite is pink to orange to pink
Goshenite Colourless or white
Hellidor Yellow colour
Red Beryl Red colour is very rare in beryl. It only comes in Utah. Some claims are done in Indonesia also. Red beryl is also known as Bixbite.

Formation of Beryl:

Most of the time, beryl is formed in Granites and in granite pegmitites which are found in metamorphic rocks normally. Emeralds (beryl variety) are fond in hydro thermal veins usually. It is found in cavities and veins of marbles or limestone. Beryl can be identified by its colour, density and hardness.

Location of Beryl in the World

Beryl is found mostly in following location of the world:-

  • Pakistan (Emeralds, goshenite, aquamarine, morganite)
  • Brazil (aqua, emeralds, morganite)
  • Angla, Kenya
  • central Madagascar, (aquamarine, morganite)
  • Nigeria(aqua, morganite)
  • Mozambique (aqua, morganite)
  • Columbia (Emeralds, green beryls)
  • the Ural Mountains in Russia
  • Ethopia (Emeralds)
  • China (Goshenite)
  • Madagascar
  • USA (Red Beryls)
  • Zambia (Emeralds, Aquamarine)
  • Vietnam (Aquamarine)
  • Afghanistan (Aquamarine / Morganite)
  • Utah (Red Beryl)
  • Mogok, Burma (Goshenite)
  • Namibia (Aquamarine, goshenite)


The popular and widely use of beryl is its being in form of gemstones now a days. Emeralds are among the most precious and economical gemstone as well. People take interest in green emerald thinking it as one of the royal gemstones. Emeralds have been used by Egyptian in the history. Various proofs have been found of emerald being used in Egyptian jewelry and decorative items during Egyptian era.

Beryl is widely used in industries. Beryl is ore of Beryllium which is very tough and rare element. It is used in making of other minerals as an alloy to give them strength. This is very expensive to produce. It is also used in military applications.

Beryl can be used as

  1. Gems
  2. Mineral collection
  3. as a metal alloy
  4. Military uses
  5. Aerospace
  6. Drilling instruments or equipments
  7. computers
  8. telecommunications
  9. industries
  10. automobiles
  11. Aerospace

What are Geological Occurrences?

Beryl is usually found in granitic pegmatites, metamorphic, hyderothermal and igneous rocks. It occurs in metamorphic rocks and hyderothermal veins (low to high temperature).

The main element of Beryl is Berilliam. Berilliam is a very rare element. Where Berliiem is found in large amount, it stops the beryl to form a mineral. Beryl can be identified in the presence of carbonaceous limestone, marble and shale. Where they are supposed to be acted by metamorphism process.

Emeralds in Swat, Pakistan are found in hydro thermal veins, and marble. The carbonaceous material is considered to give elements like vandaium and chromium which gives green colour to emeralds.

The associated minerals are normally, quartz, calcite, feldespar, mica, tantalite, Spodumene, Lepidolite, Tourmaline, apatite, flourite, amblygonite, Cassiterite.


  • Beryl - RruffProject Website-University of Arizona


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